THE PEOPLE OF THE ABYSS Liveblog Part 12

CoronationEdwardVII

Coronation of Edward VII

In Chapter 12, we see a possible reason why the homeless were so harassed. Perhaps there was a desire to drive them out of the city, at least temporarily, because they would not look good during the coronation of King Edward which occurred while Jack London was in the city of London. I don’t have any real evidence that such a tactic was use, but the homeless had no where to go anyway, and did indeed make an ugly backdrop to the coronation. The contrast with the pomp, the power, and the wealth on parade in Trafalgar Square and surrounding streets was stark, and had to have provoked strong reaction against a class system that was really just beginning to crumble at the edges.

Much of what was on parade was military and law enforcement, and while that was intended to stir patriotic fervor, it was probably also meant to quash any desire upon the part of the citizenry to express dissent. As a response to the inequities of the class system in England, the widespread unemployment, and the increasing levels of poverty, socialists, communists, and anarchists had gained some friendly reception among the British populace. Those in power were well aware of that. I’m not suggesting that the people were on the verge of rising up against their leaders, but the ruling class were certainly wary and careful.

Socialists had caused quite a stir with demonstrations over the years. Fenians had succeeded in terrorist plots against the government. An anarchist had assassinated the U.S. president, William McKinley, less than a year earlier. New and frightening ideologies lurked among the populace.

If dissent had been expressed by members of the crowds watching the parading nobles, aristocrats, and military during the coronation, I suspect it would have been put down swiftly, probably with a show of violent force. Brutality of that type wasn’t uncommon in England of the time.

Fifteen years earlier on Bloody Sunday, also in Trafalgar Square, the Metropolitan Police and the British Army attacked socialists demonstrating against unemployment and coercion in Ireland. Including some policeman, 75 people were badly injured. It’s said that Mary Anne “Polly” Nichols, Jack the Ripper’s first victim, was destitute and sleeping rough in Trafalgar Square around that time, so she may have witnessed the riot. Bloody Sunday occurred less than a year before her death.

In the United States, we currently have a candidate from one of our two major political parties encouraging brutality against demonstrators who are against him. He says he disdains political correctness and pretends to be courageous for saying what he thinks. I suspect he just wants to create as much uproar as he can to continue getting free media coverage. If political correctness is bad because its all lies and promotes conspiracies of lies, the man is being particularly selective of what he condemns, considering the many lies he tells.

As night came on during the coronation of King Edward, the streets were filled with drunken celebration. Many of the homeless didn’t have the energy or wealth to join in, but instead took advantage of the distracted police and simply slept.

—Alan M. Clark
Eugene, Oregon

Get a free ebook copy of The People of the Abyss from Project Gutenburg—available in various formats including Kindle and Epub, : http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1688

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Visit Alan M. Clark online: www.alanmclark.com

About Alan M Clark ControlledAccidentAutoPortrait

Author and illustrator, Alan M. Clark grew up in Tennessee in a house full of bones and old medical books. His awards include the World Fantasy Award and four Chesley Awards. He is the author of seventeen books, including ten novels, a lavishly illustrated novella, four collections of fiction, and a nonfiction full-color book of his artwork. Mr. Clark’s company, IFD Publishing, has released 44 titles of various editions, including traditional books, both paperback and hardcover, audio books, and ebooks by such authors as F. Paul Wilson, Elizabeth Engstrom, and Jeremy Robert Johnson. Alan M. Clark and his wife, Melody, live in Oregon. www.alanmclark.com

THE PEOPLE OF THE ABYSS Liveblog Part 11

People-of-the-Abyss-620

Photographic plate from THE PEOPLE OF THE ABYSS by Jack London.

In Chapter 11, Jack London, dead on his feet after a day and a night without sleep, waited with hundreds of homeless for a free breakfast offered by the Salvation Army. He refered to time he spent as a tramp, and told of having worked just to get his breakfast in the past. This past history accounts in part for his ability to get along with the homeless and for his compassion.

Jack London had worked at hard labor. He’d been to sea as an oyster pirate and sealer. While working in the Alaskan gold rush, he’d suffered plenty of extreme weather, hunger, and malnutrition that resulted in loss of teeth and damage to bodily joints. He’d come up rough and worked with and for a variety of men, and knew something of their character. He also clearly knew something of the world. Much of this is found in his narrative. In 1902, he would have been 26 years old, young for so worldly a man. He would die at age 40 from kidney failure, probably due to an infection picked up while traveling in the Pacific.

Jack London didn’t like the attitude of the man in charge at the Salvation Army breakfast because the fellow seemed to enjoy threatening to withhold the food in order to keep those who had come for it in line. The author thought that the look in the man’s eyes and his manner indicated that he acted the way he did to be cruel. Jack London didn’t speculate on why a fellow like that would work for a charity that helped the poor. When after the meal was finished, the author tried to leave in an effort to do what a poor unemployed man would want to do, which was to go out looking for work, the Salvation Army staff tried to stop him because they weren’t through with him. They expected him to remain for the entire program. He had not been told he had to remain for the gospel portion program until he tried to leave. The berating he received before he was finally allowed to leave was full of the suggestion that he, being a homeless, unemployed fellow, had no where else to be, certainly nothing important; further, that if he thought there were jobs to be had, then he obviously could work to earn money to feed himself and so had no business seeking a free breakfast.

I suppose those particular staff members did their work purely for the absolutely hopeless. Should they have had someone to question the unfortunates that came for a meal? “Just how hopeless are you sir? Madam, do you have any ambition to better yourself in life?” Clearly they weren’t offering the “free breakfast” advertised. No, one was expected to listen to them preach in exchange for the meal. That was a small price to pay if you were truly hungry.

In an earlier chapter, the author spoke bitterly of those he’d seen with power over others using it with apparent selfish relish. He’d also referred to his pauper companions reacting to the hardships they endured by talking like anarchist, and throwing around hollow threats. The author understood their sentiments though he was not in agreement. A socialist, he believed that laws might be changed to help the unfortunates. He also believed in the power of unions to do workers good.

As an American, I am a socialist in that I am grateful to have benefitted from many socialist programs, such as those that provide public schools, public health, law enforcement, military defense, parks, museums, support of the arts, infrastructure, and a social safety net. With the latter, the only time I’ve personally benefitted was when my wife was out of work for a year and a half and received unemployment checks from the government that helped us a lot.

As an American, I am a Republican in that I want federal and state governments that spend tax dollars carefully, and a federal government that allows states to make decisions about their futures and a free enterprise system that allows for competition in the market place.

As an American, I am a Democrat in that I want to protect civil liberties, political and religious freedom and freedom of expression. I want regulations on business and industry to prevent those in a hurry to make a profit from creating situations harmful to the public, and I also want a social safety net.

I am a moderate. I believe most American are.

BrokenOnTheWheel

“Broken on the Wheel” copyright©2011 Alan M. Clark. Acrylic on hardboard.

I’m also like Jack London in that I don’t like seeing those with power dispense it in a purely self-serving manner. Some who seek power do that, and that’s always been the case. In 1902 London, brutality was more common, expressions of cruelty more accepted, especially across class, gender, and racial boundaries.

Not intending to truly defend politically correctness, but give me the PC society we have over that of brutal Edwardian England any day.

—Alan M. Clark
Eugene, Oregon

Get a free ebook copy of The People of the Abyss from Project Gutenburg—available in various formats including Kindle and Epub, : http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1688

Preorder A Brutal Chill in August ABrutalChillInAugust_cover
Visit Alan M. Clark online: www.alanmclark.com

About Alan M Clark ControlledAccidentAutoPortrait

Author and illustrator, Alan M. Clark grew up in Tennessee in a house full of bones and old medical books. His awards include the World Fantasy Award and four Chesley Awards. He is the author of seventeen books, including ten novels, a lavishly illustrated novella, four collections of fiction, and a nonfiction full-color book of his artwork. Mr. Clark’s company, IFD Publishing, has released 44 titles of various editions, including traditional books, both paperback and hardcover, audio books, and ebooks by such authors as F. Paul Wilson, Elizabeth Engstrom, and Jeremy Robert Johnson. Alan M. Clark and his wife, Melody, live in Oregon. www.alanmclark.com

THE PEOPLE OF THE ABYSS Liveblog Part 10

"Homeless and Hungry" by Sir (Samuel) Luke Fildes. Oil on Canvas. 1874.

“Homeless and Hungry” by Sir (Samuel) Luke Fildes. Oil on Canvas. 1874.

In Chapter 10, Jack London slept rough to see what that was like for the homeless.
One can imagine that sleeping rough in a large metropolitan area with lots of parks would be something like going camping. If it was a nice warm evening, a sleeping bag (modern term) wouldn’t be needed. If it wasn’t raining—something unpredictable in a London summer—the nice soft lawn of a park would make a good resting place.

Except that the police, along their beats, checked the parks for those sleeping rough at night. So find some shrubbery and hide amidst them and doze off, right? No, the parks had guardians who patrolled them at night. They knew all the spots where the homeless tried to shelter. If they found someone, they alerted the nearest beat constable.

Okay, so no soft lawn, shrubberies didn’t work; parks in general were out. Perhaps the streets had something: alleys, doorways, sewer grates, culverts, railway bridges and viaducts. Unfortunately the constables knew their beats so well all likely sleeping spots were well-known and checked regularly.

Why weren’t the homeless allowed to sleep at night? Clearly, the law did not allow them to do so in public places. Jack London is similarly stumped by this. If the idea was to make the homeless life so uncomfortable that people would get jobs—assuming that any became available—the law or ordinance against sleeping rough at night worked against it. Obviously, a well-rested person who could actually perform labor during the day would more easily find work. Without that consideration, the effort to keep the homeless awake seems at best arbitrary, at worst a particularly cruel one.

Perhaps a notion about the lower class and poor that was carried by many from a higher station played a part; that unfortunates deserved what they got in life because they were inherently inferior and morally corrupt. They were all “choke artists” and “losers,” to use more modern terms. Implied in this thinking is the idea that evidence of the poor’s inferiority was the fact that they had landed hard on the streets in the predicament in which they found themselves. That’s circular thinking.

Trying to sleep rough in London at night, one might get 10 minutes of sleep at a stretch, 30 if lucky, but what was the quality of that sleep? It had to be spent in an environment full of vermin; rats, mice, flies, and scavengers; hungry humans, dogs, and cats.

In a time when the majority of travel that didn’t occur on foot was still powered by horse—hundreds of thousands of them in London of the time—the streets were mired each day in at least a thousand tons of horse dung and over a hundred thousand gallons of horse urine. That had to smell bad.

Much of the manure in London was gathered by scavengers and hauled away for use in agriculture and industry. London would have been totally mired in waste if not for the scavengers. While unemployment had become an increasing problem, the poor, both adults and children, scavenged and sold what they found. The pure finders scooped dog poop for tanneries. The bone grubbers collected bone for the makers of fertilizer. Toshers scavenged in the sewers. Mudlarks, many of them children, scavenged on the banks of the poisonous River Thames. Metal, stray bits of coal, leather, and cloth were all sellable.

Despite the army of unemployed scavenging for industry, much horse dung remained on the streets long enough for flies to breed in it.

I remember my father who was born in the 1920s talking about flies in “the old days.” One of the things he said was that before horses were gone from the streets in Nashville, Tennessee, there had been a lot more flies. “Flies everywhere,” he said, “getting into everything.” Of course that was Nashville, Tennessee when it was a small city in a county of a couple hundred thousand people, not the London of millions.

The average lifespan of a horse in London at the time was about 3 years. Flies also bred in the carcasses of horses, which were often left where they had fallen dead at least until rigor mortise relaxed to make dismemberment and carting away of the remains easier. The flies needed food, and visited every moist aperture they could find, spreading diseases like typhoid fever.

Here is an illustration from Punch Magazine that gives a sense of the poisonous environment of London. The illustration was published in 1858 during a bad cholera outbreak. After that, London had built the best sewers in the world to improve the situation. The river was much cleaner, the drinking water much safer, but filth on the streets had only increased.

LondonSewage

“Thames Offspring” Punch Magazine 1858, Volume 35

Try sleeping in that environment. I’d want to cover my face for sure. To wear something over my mouth and nose might also have helped slightly to protect my lungs from the horrid air which was charged with soot particulates and sulfur dioxide from industrial and home use—heating and cooking—of coal burning. The poisons in the London air took the lives of thousands of people every year.

Then there were the human scavengers I spoke of, some desperate enough to take what they could off a sleeping man, despite the risks. Remember, leather and cloth were sellable. One might wake up without shoes or missing pieces of clothing. That’s assuming one woke up at all. Hungry children banded together to scavenge in groups, some of them, organized by adults known as kidsmen, were quite ruthless. Fagin in Oliver Twist was a kidsman.

I wouldn’t worry too much about the cats, but feral dogs…. Hmmm, my pup, Jasper, looks at me with a particularly sad expression when I consider writing about canines molesting sleeping humans, so I’ll just leave that up to my audiences’ imaginations.

—Alan M. Clark
Eugene, Oregon

Get a free ebook copy of The People of the Abyss from Project Gutenburg—available in various formats including Kindle and Epub, : http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1688

Preorder A Brutal Chill in August ABrutalChillInAugust_cover
Visit Alan M. Clark online: www.alanmclark.com

About Alan M Clark ControlledAccidentAutoPortrait

Author and illustrator, Alan M. Clark grew up in Tennessee in a house full of bones and old medical books. His awards include the World Fantasy Award and four Chesley Awards. He is the author of seventeen books, including ten novels, a lavishly illustrated novella, four collections of fiction, and a nonfiction full-color book of his artwork. Mr. Clark’s company, IFD Publishing, has released 44 titles of various editions, including traditional books, both paperback and hardcover, audio books, and ebooks by such authors as F. Paul Wilson, Elizabeth Engstrom, and Jeremy Robert Johnson. Alan M. Clark and his wife, Melody, live in Oregon. www.alanmclark.com