Coronation of Edward VII

In Chapter 12, we see a possible reason why the homeless were so harassed. Perhaps there was a desire to drive them out of the city, at least temporarily, because they would not look good during the coronation of King Edward which occurred while Jack London was in the city of London. I don’t have any real evidence that such a tactic was use, but the homeless had no where to go anyway, and did indeed make an ugly backdrop to the coronation. The contrast with the pomp, the power, and the wealth on parade in Trafalgar Square and surrounding streets was stark, and had to have provoked strong reaction against a class system that was really just beginning to crumble at the edges.

Much of what was on parade was military and law enforcement, and while that was intended to stir patriotic fervor, it was probably also meant to quash any desire upon the part of the citizenry to express dissent. As a response to the inequities of the class system in England, the widespread unemployment, and the increasing levels of poverty, socialists, communists, and anarchists had gained some friendly reception among the British populace. Those in power were well aware of that. I’m not suggesting that the people were on the verge of rising up against their leaders, but the ruling class were certainly wary and careful.

Socialists had caused quite a stir with demonstrations over the years. Fenians had succeeded in terrorist plots against the government. An anarchist had assassinated the U.S. president, William McKinley, less than a year earlier. New and frightening ideologies lurked among the populace.

If dissent had been expressed by members of the crowds watching the parading nobles, aristocrats, and military during the coronation, I suspect it would have been put down swiftly, probably with a show of violent force. Brutality of that type wasn’t uncommon in England of the time.

Fifteen years earlier on Bloody Sunday, also in Trafalgar Square, the Metropolitan Police and the British Army attacked socialists demonstrating against unemployment and coercion in Ireland. Including some policeman, 75 people were badly injured. It’s said that Mary Anne “Polly” Nichols, Jack the Ripper’s first victim, was destitute and sleeping rough in Trafalgar Square around that time, so she may have witnessed the riot. Bloody Sunday occurred less than a year before her death.

In the United States, we currently have a candidate from one of our two major political parties encouraging brutality against demonstrators who are against him. He says he disdains political correctness and pretends to be courageous for saying what he thinks. I suspect he just wants to create as much uproar as he can to continue getting free media coverage. If political correctness is bad because its all lies and promotes conspiracies of lies, the man is being particularly selective of what he condemns, considering the many lies he tells.

As night came on during the coronation of King Edward, the streets were filled with drunken celebration. Many of the homeless didn’t have the energy or wealth to join in, but instead took advantage of the distracted police and simply slept.

—Alan M. Clark
Eugene, Oregon

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Author and illustrator Alan M. Clark grew up in Tennessee in a house full of bones and old medical books. His awards include the World Fantasy Award and four Chesley Awards. He is the author of seventeen books, including ten novels, a lavishly illustrated novella, four collections of fiction, and a nonfiction full-color book of his artwork. Mr. Clark’s company, IFD Publishing, has released 44 titles of various editions, including traditional books, both paperback and hardcover, audio books, and ebooks by such authors as F. Paul Wilson, Elizabeth Engstrom, and Jeremy Robert Johnson. Alan M. Clark and his wife, Melody, live in Oregon.